Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a blood disorder that causes the sickling of the red blood cells. As a result, various consequences can arise that can become life-threatening. This, together with lack of knowledge about the origins of the disease, poses a disease burden. This paper concerns SCD's etiology and the basis of the mutation, general explanation of various detection techniques, the disease burden and existing treatments. The importance of prenatal and early detection is especially highlighted through introducing amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR), which is a detection technique for SCD in fetuses. ARMS-PCR is an advanced form of the already existing PCR techniques that is normally used for detecting SCD. Treatments for SCD include hydroxyurea therapy, RNAi therapy and a bone marrow transplant.