Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The pathogenesis of MS consists of an inflammatory and a neurodegenerative phase, which can be subdivided into a relapse-remitting phase, a primary and a secondary phase. This review will evaluate current research on the pathogenesis and management of MS. A characteristic of MS is the infiltration by immune cells across the blood-brain barrier that stimulates inflammation. It is unclear whether this reaction can be contributed to actions within the CNS or outside in the periphery. Specific focus on the autoimmune reaction of T and B cells have been at the center for most theories concerning the cause of MS. However, the specific antigen for the induction of the inflammation remains yet to be discovered. There is no cure for MS, but Alemtuzumab, Glatiramer, and Natalizumab inhibit lymphocyte activation and activate self-repair mechanisms in lesion areas.